2016年10月17日 星期一

algorithm

How would you feel if a secret calculation was used to decide whether or not you ended up in prison? That’s what’s happening in the US – and some people are worried it’s resulting in racist treatment.

When maths can get you locked up.
BBC.CO.UK

When Not to Trust the Algorithm - Harvard Business Review

https://hbr.org/ideacast/2016/10/when-not-to-trust-the-algorithm

Oct 6, 2016 - Cathy O'Neil, author of “Weapons of Math Destruction” on how data can lead us astray–from HR to Wall Street.


Data scientist and blogger Cathy O'Neil discusses her new book, Weapons of Math Destruction, examining the way algorithms and data science are making our society less fair and equal.

 U.K. Hems In Cyprus Banks
Nervous about exposure to Cyprus's ailing financial system, British regulators have pushed the Mediterranean island's top two banks to restructure their U.K. arms to allow for greater local oversight.


hem 

発音
hém
hemの変化形
hems (複数形) • hemmed (過去形) • hemmed (過去分詞) • hemming (現在分詞) • hems (三人称単数現在)
hemの慣用句
kiss the hem of a person's garment, (全1件)
[動](〜med, 〜・ming)(他)
1 〈布・衣服の〉へり縫いをする, すそをかがる;((米))〈ズボン・スカートなどの〉すそ(丈)を上げる.
2 ((通例受身))〈人・物・場所を〉(取り)囲む, 閉じ込める((in, about, around, up))
be hemmed in by rules and regulations
規則規定でがんじがらめにされる.
━━[名](布・衣服の)へり, すそ;(一般的に)へり, 縁.
kiss the hem of a person's garment
〈人に〉おもねる.





algorithm

NOUN

  • A process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem-solving operations, especially by a computer.
    ‘a basic algorithm for division’
    → algo

Origin

Late 17th century (denoting the Arabic or decimal notation of numbers): variant (influenced by Greek arithmos number) of Middle English algorism, via Old French from medieval Latin algorismus. The Arabic source, al-Ḵwārizmī the man of Ḵwārizm (now Khiva), was a name given to the 9th-century mathematician Abū Ja‘far Muhammad ibn Mūsa, author of widely translated works on algebra and arithmetic.


algorithm這個字,源自於九世紀阿拉伯/波斯的數學家穆罕默德•科瓦力茲彌的名字Mohammed al-Kow?rizm?,據說他首先訂出出十進位算術的逐步演算法則。他的名字在拉丁文中變成Algorismus,英文的algorithm就是由此衍生。

歷史上第一個重要的算法是西元前400到300年間希臘的大數學家歐幾里得發明的。人稱「歐幾里得算法 (Euclidean algorithm)」的方法,可以計算出兩個正整數間的最大公因數(gcd),也就是可以同時整除兩數的最大整數。例如:80 與32 的gcd是16。

最早出現 algorithmics這個字的地方應該是J. F. Traub的書Iterative Methods for the Solution of Equations (Prentice-Hall, 1964)。最先在書中建議把這個領域叫做algorithmics 的是D. E. Knuth: Algorithmic Thinking and Mathematical Thinking, American Math. Monthly 92(1985), 170 - 181,而本書作者率先使用在書名上Algorithmics: The Spirit of Computing (Addison-Wesley, 1987)。《電腦也搞不定:從數學看計算機科學的罩門》第一章注釋

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