2018年6月1日 星期五

superman (1903), Ubermensch, Superman, (superhero), overman

DW Culture

#Superman going strong at 80!

He is the grandfather of all superheroes and still the undisputed star of DC Comics.



80 years of Superman comics: Why the superhero almost never existed

Posted on November 7, 2016 by Lee Jay Yukio Mishima: The Last Great Japanese Author and…

事實上,在尼采過世的20世紀,英語界才兩次有superman(1903),Superman(1938美國漫畫)的出現 :前文說過,1903年前多用overman,不過1903年蕭伯納的著名戲劇《人與超人》(Man and Superman)才使superman成為比overman更風行的翻譯。(參考20th Century Words)

In Thus spake Zarathustra (in German: Also sprach Zarathustra), the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche explains the three steps through which man can become an Ubermensch (literally, "overman"):
1. By his will to destruction
2. By re-evaluating or destroying old ideals
3. By overcoming nihilism

我 們只談:希姆博爾斯卡的一首題名Utopia 的詩(By Wislawa Szymborska -From "A large number", 1976 Translated by S. Baranczak & C. Cavanagh)。它談人類知識-了解-欣賞的「烏托邦」。

Sporting red boxing gloves and a sleeveless top emblazoned with a red maple leaf, a smiling Justin Trudeau, Canada’s prime minister, appears relaxed as gears up for his latest role: comic book hero

‘We acknowledge that this is basically Trudeau fan fiction,’ says Chip…

The word 'superhero' dates to at least 1917.[6] 
In modern popular fiction, a superhero (sometimes rendered super-hero or super hero) is a type ofcostumed heroic character who possesses supernatural or superhuman powers and who is dedicated to fighting crime, protecting the public, and usually battling supervillains. A female superhero is sometimes called a superheroine (also rendered super-heroine or super heroine). Fiction centered on such characters, especially in American comic books since the 1930s, is known as superhero fiction.

談詩哲的超人與烏托邦  2004.8

overman, superman, Superman, (superhero)
昨天談poetic justice。其實poetic 一字,除了與詩情相關,一直與美和豐富的情敢流露相關(Poetic 第2義: APPROVING very beautiful or expressing emotion。)

今天讀1900 年8月26日紐約時報發尼采教授的訃聞(Prof. Nietzsche Dead),文末說明他的主要著作(principal publications): "The Old Faith and the New," "The Overman," "The Dawn of Day," "Twilight of the Gods," and "So Spake Zrathustra," which is perhaps the most remarkable of his works. 

我以前讀的版本,超人(Übermensch都用superman翻譯,這是第一次注意到它用overman這字。查Webster's 1913 Dictionary的 overman意思1. 【人】 首領,頭目,(尤指工廠等中的)監工,工頭,領班(One in authority over others; a chief; usually, an overseer or boss);2.【蘇格蘭律】 仲裁人,公斷人(An arbiter);3. 【人】 【哲】 (Nietzsche 所說的)超人(In the philosophy of Nietzsche, a man of superior physique and powers capable of dominating others; one fitted to survive in an egoistic struggle for the mastery. ) 

現在一般稱 superman 的意思指在力量、能力、智力等遠比常人強的人(a man who has greater strength, ability, intelligence, etc. than other men)當然在女權下許多人開始採用superhuman 一字。同義語有: overman, demigod, Übermensch等。

事實上,在尼采過世的20世紀,英語界才兩次有superman(1903),Superman(1938美國漫畫)的出現 :前文說過,1903年前多用overman,不過1903年蕭伯納的著名戲劇《人與超人》(Man and Superman才使superman成為比overman更風行的翻譯。(參考 20th Century Words) 

In Thus spake Zarathustra (in German: Also sprach Zarathustra), the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche explains the three steps through which man can become an Übermensch (literally, "overman"): 
1. By his will to destruction 
2. By re-evaluating or destroying old ideals 
3. By overcoming nihilism 
我們只談:希姆博爾斯卡的一首題名Utopia 的詩(By Wislawa Szymborska -From "A large number", 1976 Translated by S. Baranczak & C. Cavanagh)。它談人類知識-了解-欣賞的「烏托邦」。 

UTOPIA:The word "utopia" derives from two Greek words,
εὐτόποσ and οὐτόποσ, meaning respectively "good
place" and "no place."……
(這Upopia一字,是1516年英國Sir Thomas More的名著(商務印書館等有翻譯本),為一雙關語,既指eupopos(好地方)又指outopos(烏(何)有之鄉)。) 

可惜,此詩的重要名辭,英文翻譯都採大寫,提醒讀者它是專門名辭。不過,我讀過的兩種中文翻譯,都將它們與其他漢字「一視同仁」,這樣一來容易造成誤解,又可能出錯,譬如說, supposition是西方中世紀發展出的一套求真理的邏輯理論;現在一般辭典多將 supposition當成「無憑證堅信」(when someone believes something is true without any proof:例句:
That article was based on pure supposition. )大陸的中文翻譯本翻成「猜得很對/正確思維」。
Tree of Valid Supposition;The Tree of Understanding;the Valley of Obviously;Echoes ;Meaning;the Lake of Deep Conviction;the Lake of Deep Conviction;Truth;Unshakable Confidence towers;the Essence of Things

Island where all becomes clear.

Solid ground beneath your feet.

The only roads are those that offer access.

Bushes bend beneath the weight of proofs.

The Tree of Valid Supposition grows here 
with branches disentangled since time immemorial.
The Tree of Understanding, dazzlingly straight and simple,
sprouts by the spring called Now I Get It.

The thicker the woods, the vaster the vista:
the Valley of Obviously. 

If any doubts arise, the wind dispels them instantly.

Echoes stir unsummoned
and eagerly explain all the secrets of the worlds.

On the right a cave where Meaning lies.

On the left the Lake of Deep Conviction. 
Truth breaks from the bottom and bobs to the surface.

Unshakable Confidence towers over the valley.
Its peak offers an excellent view of the Essence of Things.

For all its charms, the island is uninhabited, 
and the faint footprints scattered on its beaches
turn without exception to the sea.

As if all you can do here is leave
and plunge, never to return, inepths.

Into unfathomable life.

 Wislawa Szymborska, S. Baranczak & C. Cavanagh 

--- 談一下utopian的反義字(antonyms)「反面烏托邦」dystopian,它在18世紀末即有,此字的前置"dys+" 為'BAD'+(U)TOPIA。根據WordNet Dictionary ,它的意思和例子如下: 
Definition: [adj] as bad as can be; characterized by human misery; "AIDS is one of the dystopian harbingers of the global villages"- Susan Sontag 

"In the dystopian novel Disgrace, David Lurie does not achieve creativity and freedom until, stripped of all dignity, he is afflicted by his own shame and history's disgrace. In this work, Coetzee summarises his themes: race and gender, ownership and violence, and the moral and political complicity of everyone in that borderland where the languages of liberation and reconciliation carry no meaning." 



VERB (overmansovermanningovermanned)

Pronunciation: /ˈəʊvəman/ 
Provide with more staff than necessary:the company was vastly overmanned


Pronunciation: /ˈəʊvəman/ 
(plural overmen)
2Philosophy another term for superman.
Translation of Nietzsche's Übermensch